Emergency Medical Technicians
The terms –or designations- ‘Ambulance Technician’ and Emergency Medical Technician (EMT) are utilized in certain countries in order to indicate a health care provider who offers medical services at an emergency capacity. EMTs are clinicians, who are trained to respond rapidly to emergency situations. These urgent matters could be with respect to medical matters, traumatic or catastrophic injuries and accidents of all natures.
EMTs are most commonly found working in ambulances, but should not be confused with “ambulance drivers” or “ambulance attendants
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- Question 1 of 24
What is the first thing that you would do to assess an adult with chest pain?CorrectIncorrect
Identifying the patient’s transport priority would be a component of the patient’s primary assessment. Scene safety is ascertained during the scene size up. Calculating the specifics about the patient’s pain and reassessing vitals are done later on in the patient’s assessment process.
- Question 2 of 24
You have a five-year-old patient who is unresponsive. He has a carotid pulse at 40 beats per minute and is taking 6 shallow breaths per minute. What should you immediately do?CorrectIncorrect
You should begin your CPR with chest compressions whenever you are faced with an unresponsive child with a pulse rate below 60.
- Question 3 of 24
Out of the following medications, which one is prescribed, in order to increase myocardial blood flow and decrease myocardial workload?CorrectIncorrect
Nitro-glycerine is a vasodilator. This means that it will increase blood flow to the heart and reduce systemic vascular resistance. Activated charcoal is used as an adsorbent, aspirin is an anti-platelet aggregate and epinephrine is a sympathomimetic.
- Question 4 of 24
Your patient is in respiratory distress. His medical history shows that he has had multiple myocardial infarctions. His lung sounds show signs of pulmonary edema. You make a note that your patient does not have any JVD or pedal edema. What is your patient most likely experiencing?CorrectIncorrect
Pedal enema and JVD are usually indications of right heart failure. Pulmonary edema is usually an indication of left heart failure. The patient’s signs and symptoms are not consistent with angina or asthma.
- Question 5 of 24
From where does the left side of the human heart receive oxygenated blood?CorrectIncorrect
The pulmonary veins are the source of oxygenated blood to the left side of the heart. The right side of the heart receives deoxygenated blood from the venae cavae. Deoxygenated blood exits the right heart by way of the pulmonary arteries.
- Question 6 of 24
The _______________ provides oxygenated blood directly to the heart.CorrectIncorrect
The coronary arteries send oxygenated blood directly to the heart. The carotid and cerebral arteries provide blood to the brain and the femoral arteries are found in the leg.
- Question 7 of 24
One of the following arteries carries deoxygenated blood. Which one?CorrectIncorrect
The pulmonary arteries are the only arteries that transport deoxygenated blood. The pulmonary veins are the only veins that transport oxygenated blood.
- Question 8 of 24
Of all the statements below, which one best explains the purpose of administering aspirin to a possible myocardial patient?CorrectIncorrect
Aspirin is used to reduce platelet aggregation in the coronary arteries. It does not dilate coronary arteries, it does not reduce chest pain due to MI and it does not reduce acidosis.
- Question 9 of 24
You have been dispatched to a possible CVA. Once you have arrived on the scene, you determine that the patient is responding to painful stimuli. Which of the following must be the primary assessment for this patient?CorrectIncorrect
When a patient is responsive, they should always be assessed using the ABC sequence during your initial assessment. A patient’s airway should always be assessed prior to their pulses, skin or blood pressure. Their circulation should not be assessed first (The CAB sequence) because responsive patients are not in need of CPR.
- Question 10 of 24
What is the major cause of shock?CorrectIncorrect
Shock, (which is also known as hypo perfusion) can develop as a result of inadequate tissue perfusion and when it disrupts the body’s homeostasis. It is not typically caused by the hyperactivity of an organ or by systematic vasoconstriction.
- Question 11 of 24
For infants and children, which option below is considered a normal capillary refill time?CorrectIncorrect
A normal capillary refill will occur in two seconds or less in an infant or child.
- Question 12 of 24
In order to determine if CPR is needed for an unresponsive patient who is less than one year of age, you it would be necessary to assess the child’s:CorrectIncorrect
You should always assess a patient’s pulse at the brachial artery, when the patient is less than one year in age.
- Question 13 of 24
You have been called to a daycare facility, responding to an emergency call about an ill child. You have arrived on scene and you are faced with an unresponsive eight-month-old infant. The infant has a palpable pulse of fifty beats per minute. What should your next action be?CorrectIncorrect
You must begin CPR with chest compressions, when there is an unresponsive child with a pulse below sixty beats per minute. This should be done before transporting the child and the AED is not is not indicated when dealing with patients who have a pulse.
- Question 14 of 24
You arrive at a golf course, where an elderly person had collapsed about ten minutes ago. You assess her level of consciousness and determine that she is unresponsive. What must you do first?CorrectIncorrect
When a patient is unresponsive, you should assess them by using the CAB sequence in order to ensure that chest compressions are started as soon as possible. An AED should never be applied unless cardiac arrest is confirmed.
- Question 15 of 24
When patients over one year of age are unresponsive, you should palpitate the…CorrectIncorrect
Circulation in a unresponsive patient above one year of age should always be assessed at the carotid artery. The brachial artery is used to assess circulation in unresponsive patients, less than one year of age
- Question 16 of 24
Out of the following options, which one is a component of the Cincinnati Prehospital Stroke Scale?CorrectIncorrect
The Cincinnati Prehospital Stroke Scale contains assessments for slurred speech, facial droop and arm drift.
- Question 17 of 24
You arrive at a house, where an elderly woman was recently found unconscious in her bed. Her family reports to you, that she had a severe headache for the past 24 hours. She has a history of hypertension and transient ischemic attacks. (TIAs) Her current condition is most likely due to:CorrectIncorrect
Your patient’s signs and symptoms are consistent with a stroke, not a cardiac emergency or migraine headache. Signs of a TIA are quite similar to those of a stroke, however they usually resolve within 24 hours.
- Question 18 of 24
How would oxygen be administered to a patient who is experiencing chest pains, if a pulse oximeter is available?CorrectIncorrect
Oxygen must be administered as deemed necessary, in order to maintain a pulse oximeter of at least 94%. High flow oxygen is not recommended anymore for patients who have no signs of hypoxia and who have a pulse oximeter reading of at least 94%.
- Question 19 of 24
You are dispatched to a retirement facility, for a seventy-year-old male with a changing level of consciousness. The elderly man’s wife tells you that he has been quite confused for the past several hours. He has slurred speech and left-sided weakness. What would you suspect with these symptoms?CorrectIncorrect
This patient is showing signs and symptoms of having had a stroke. These signs and symptoms are not consistent with an MI or with internal bleeding. Dementia doesn’t typically have an acute initial onset, rather it presents itself over time. It also doesn’t cause slurred speech or one-sided weakness.
- Question 20 of 24
You’re eating dinner and your partner all of a sudden grabs his throat. He has a panic-stricken look on his face and is unable to speak. He has a faint inspiratory stridor and cyanosis around his lips. What should you immediately do?CorrectIncorrect
As your patient, your partner is showing signs of a nearly complete airway obstruction due to a foreign object. (Most likely food) As he is conscious, abdominal thrusts should be administered immediately. You could encourage him to cough if he had a partial airway obstruction and there was adequate air exchange, but this was not the case here. Back blows are only used on conscious infants with an airway obstruction, not on adults. Your patient should not be placed in a supine position unless he was to lose consciousness.
- Question 21 of 24
Choose the condition that would most likely require your patient to be transported to a specialized facility:CorrectIncorrect
Stroke patients will need to be transported to a facility that is capable of providing rapid assessment and intervention. Dyspnea, diabetic problems and syncope can usually be handled in an emergency department at any hospital.
- Question 22 of 24
Out of the statements below, which one depicts distributive shock correctly?CorrectIncorrect
Distributive Shock (DS) is caused by systematic vasodilation. Improper cardiac function can lead to cardiogenic shock. Serious bleeding can lead to hypovolemic shock and acute hypoglycaemia would lead to insulin shock.
- Question 23 of 24
When it comes to an automated external defibrillator, (AED) which of the following statements is correct?CorrectIncorrect
Adult AED pads can definitely be used on a pediatric patient, if there are no pediatric AED pads available. The AED can be used on adults, children and infants if and when they are in cardiac arrest.
- Question 24 of 24
The most likely condition that would cause hypovolemic shock is:CorrectIncorrect
The liver is a solid organ and therefore would bleed profusely if ever injured. A laceration of the liver would likely lead to hypovolemic shock. A spinal cord injury would most likely lead to distributive shock due to vasodilation. Insulin shock is not a very common cause of hypovolemia, but DKA is. Appendicitis is more likely to lead to septic shock.