Certified Nursing Assistants
Certified Nursing Assistants are crucial members of any health care team. They are continuously working under the direction of a nurse. (RN or LPN/LVN) CNAs also provide hands on nursing care to patients, residents, clients and customers in various health care settings. CNAs usually provide assistance with self-care, such as bathing, dressing, eating, toileting and oral care to patients who are unable to complete these tasks on their own. CNAs are often often the staff member, who will read the patient’s vital signs, weigh the patients and they measure the patient’s height.
CNA exams are normally taken in two parts. There is a written component and a hands-on skills component. The written component of the test is typically in a multiple-choice format and will evaluate the CNAs knowledge of the subjects that all CNAs are expected to know.
Anyone writing a CNA exam must have a high school diploma or GED.
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- Question 1 of 23
A patient has had hip surgery. Her legs should beCorrectIncorrect
Following hip surgery, the client should be positioned to maintain natural alignment of the leg. A pillow (“abductor pillow”) or wedge is placed between the legs keeps the legs in the correct position. Ankles and legs cannot be crossed, and toes should point toward the ceiling. The hip should not be rotated inwards or outwards. The client can never lie on the non-operative side.
- Question 2 of 23
The nurse aide just admitted a new resident. Which of the following is the most restorative approach?CorrectIncorrect
Helping clients return to their previous state of health includes having them do as much for themselves as possible. Engaging them in activities encourages them to be independent throughout the restorative process. Also, clients who are involved in decision making are more likely to be compliant with treatment.
- Question 3 of 23
If a client has hand tremors, the nurse aide SHOULDCorrectIncorrect
Hand tremors are the most common type of involuntary movement. There is no cure for tremors. Treatment includes physical therapy, occupational therapy, and medications. Therapy can help clients learn to do many tasks for themselves. Adaptive devices, such as special eating utensils, can support their efforts to be independent.
- Question 4 of 23
The nurse aide is making an occupied bed. Which of the following is the most restorative approach?CorrectIncorrect
Even clients who must remain in bed can often still participate in their care. They can move and turn in bed during the linen change. They can assist with their bed bath and perform their own oral care. The nurse aide should encourage the client to do as much as possible.
- Question 5 of 23
The role of the ombudsman is toCorrectIncorrect
An ombudsman is a trained advocate for clients’ rights in a long-term care facility. They assist clients and their families with any issues or disagreements that occur at the facility. Examples are inadequate services, lack of privacy, poor food quality, or problems with other residents. If the client or family is unable to resolve a problem with the staff, an ombudsman can negotiate on their behalf, as well as find other resources to help them.
- Question 6 of 23
A patient is leaving the hospital. The family has been told to give her medications bid. The wife asks what that means. The nurse aide tells her to give the medicationCorrectIncorrect
BID is an abbreviation used in medicine and pharmacy to indicate “two times each day.” The medication should be taken every 12 hours. BID is also written as b.i.d. or bid.
- Question 7 of 23
When ambulating an unsteady client, it is BEST for the nurse aide to use aCorrectIncorrect
Using a gait belt when helping a client ambulate allows the client to walk with support and prevent a fall if the client becomes weak. It also reduces back strain for the nurse aide. A gait belt is also used to help a client stand from a sitting position and transfer to a chair.
- Question 8 of 23
The most basic rule of body mechanics is toCorrectIncorrect
Proper body mechanics uses the legs to do most of the work. Keep your back straight and locked; do not turn or twist. If you bend, do so at the knees and hips, not the waist. Before lifting or moving a client, assess how much the client is able to do. If you have any doubts, always ask for assistance from a co-worker.
- Question 9 of 23
Mr. Johnson has just returned from surgery. Which of the following things do you do?CorrectIncorrect
The two most common post-operative complications include atelectasis (fluid collecting in the lungs) which can lead to pneumonia, and blood clots, which can break off and travel to the lungs. The nurse aide can help the client turn in bed, as well as take deep breaths and cough, to make sure enough air gets into the lungs. Leg exercises and getting out of bed as soon as possible can increase circulation to avoid blood clots.
- Question 10 of 23
The primary goal of restorative care isCorrectIncorrect
Restorative care provides specialized services to help a client regain the highest possible health and function and to prevent decline. The goal is to assist the client to return to a home setting and live independently. Rehabilitation methods are used to teach clients activities of daily living, speech, and safety.
- Question 11 of 23
When the nurse aide moves a joint during ROM (range of motion) exercises, and the resident complains of pain, the nurse aide shouldCorrectIncorrect
Range of motion (ROM) exercises provide a way to maintain joint flexibility. Each joint is moved as far as it can comfortably go. The client may feel slight discomfort as the muscles are stretched, but never push beyond the point of pain. If the client reports pain, stop immediately and report to the nurse or therapist.
- Question 12 of 23
ROM exercises will help preventCorrectIncorrect
A contracture is a shortening of muscles, tissues, tendons, and skin at the joints, due to lack of movement and exercise. When joints remain bent over time, they can no longer be straightened. Range of motion (ROM) exercises provide a way to maintain joint flexibility. In passive ROM, someone moves the joints with no assistance from the client. In active ROM, the client does the exercises alone or with the help of devices, such as a strap.
- Question 13 of 23
13. QuestionProper body mechanics dictates that when lifting an object, the nurse aide place his feetCorrectIncorrect
When lifting any heavy object, start by placing your feet shoulder width apart, about 12-18 inches, with one foot slightly in front of the other. Squat down, bending only your hips and knees. Keep your back straight and shoulders back as you slowly stand. Never twist or turn as you lift. Hold the object close to your body, near your navel.
- Question 14 of 23
Exercises that move each muscle and joint are calledCorrectIncorrect
Range of motion (ROM) exercises provide a way to maintain joint flexibility. In passive ROM, someone moves the joints with no assistance from the client. In active ROM, the client does the exercises alone or with the help of devices, such as a strap. ROM is important to prevent contractures. A contracture is a shortening of muscles, tissues, tendons, and skin at the joints, due to lack of movement and exercise. When joints remain bent over time, they can no longer be straightened.
- Question 15 of 23
What is the process of restoring a disabled client to the highest level of functioning possible?CorrectIncorrect
Rehabilitation is the specialized care that helps a client get the best possible level of function and independence possible. The rehabilitation process is used to restore physical strength and movement after surgery, illness, or trauma. It cannot reverse the damage, but can assist the client to attain a better quality of life.
- Question 16 of 23
After assisting with evening care, the nurse aide notices the client has bilateral hearing aids. The nurse aide understands that if a hearing aid is not in use, it shouldCorrectIncorrect
When hearing aids are not going to be in use for several hours or overnight, disengage the battery to make it last longer. The battery can be removed, but it is easier to open the door of the hearing aid and leave the battery inside. Clients with limited vision or poor motor skills will be able to close the door and insert the hearing aid easily. Never leave hearing aids where they can get lost, misplaced, or damaged. A drawer or container are safe storage places.
- Question 17 of 23
A button hook and a sock assist are all part of what kind of nursing care?CorrectIncorrect
When clients are recovering from illnesses or accidents, or learning to live with a disorder, special items can be used to help the clients adapt to the situation and be as independent as possible. Two types of health care professionals assist clients with these goals. Restorative medicine is a new branch of medicine that works to restore a client’s health, not just treat symptoms. Rehabilitative medicine specializes in treating clients with painful or limiting physical conditions.
- Question 18 of 23
Equipment used to help the resident maintain correct body alignment includes all of the following EXCEPTCorrectIncorrect
Proper body positions maintain good body alignment, which is necessary to help the client feel comfortable, as well as avoid complications. Foot supports prevent foot drop by keeping feet in their natural position. Splints can stabilize a limb or joint. A bed cradle protects a part of the body by keeping the weight of sheets and blankets from touching the client.
- Question 19 of 23
You are delegated to provide passive R.O.M. to L lower and upper extremities. This means youCorrectIncorrect
In passive range-of-motion (PROM), the client’s joints are supported and moved by someone else. The client does not participate in the exercises. PROM keeps joints flexible, but does not build muscle. Active ROM is necessary to increase strength.
- Question 20 of 23
A nursing assistant is helping a resident to walk. If the resident becomes faint and begins to fall, the assistant shouldCorrectIncorrect
Before helping any resident walk, take time to assess how much assistance will be needed. Allow the resident to sit at the edge of the bed and dangle their legs before standing. When walking, if the resident becomes weak or dizzy, protect them and yourself by easing the resident to the floor. Do this by holding them under the arms while putting one of your legs forward to support the resident while lowering them to the floor. Keep your knees bent to avoid a back injury.
- Question 21 of 23
Pressure sores can often be prevented if the client isCorrectIncorrect
One of the primary responsibilities of a nurse aide is to monitor the client’s skin for any signs of breakdown that could develop into bedsores, also called decubitus ulcers or pressure sores. During baths, dressing, or position changes, inspect the skin for redness, pallor, warmth, or bruising. Reposition at least every two hours, protecting areas that rub together, as well as the bony prominences. Massages to the back and buttocks can promote circulation. Range-of-motion exercises are also helpful. Always report any signs of breakdown to the nurse.
- Question 22 of 23
A contracture (tightening, or shortening of a muscle) is caused byCorrectIncorrect
When a muscle is not moved or exercised, it can shorten and become stiff. Range of motion (ROM)becomes limited and movement can be painful. Prevention is important when a client is immobile or has a disorder that can lead to contractures, such as cerebral palsy or muscular dystrophy. Stretching, performing ROM exercises and using splints can help maintain function.
- Question 23 of 23
Goals of arthritis care includeCorrectIncorrect
Arthritis is a common chronic disorder of the joints. It involves pain, swelling, and stiffness that can limit movement. Care of a client with arthritis includes a wide range of ongoing treatments to decrease inflammation and maintain the joints. Stretching, exercise, heat and cold, and anti-inflammatory medications can be helpful.