Emergency Medical Technicians
The terms –or designations- ‘Ambulance Technician’ and Emergency Medical Technician (EMT) are utilized in certain countries in order to indicate a health care provider who offers medical services at an emergency capacity. EMTs are clinicians, who are trained to respond rapidly to emergency situations. These urgent matters could be with respect to medical matters, traumatic or catastrophic injuries and accidents of all natures.
EMTs are most commonly found working in ambulances, but should not be confused with “ambulance drivers” or “ambulance attendants
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- Question 1 of 24
What does the hypoxic respiratory drive monitor in the human body?CorrectIncorrect
The body’s backup system to the CO2 drive is called the hypoxic drive. Its function is to monitor the blood’s oxygen levels. (Not C02 or blood glucose.) The pulse oximeter is an external patient monitoring device.
- Question 2 of 24
Out of the following four choices, which sign of hypoxia is more common in pediatric patients?CorrectIncorrect
Bradycardia is a more common sign of hypoxia in pediatric patients. Anxiety, tachycardia and restlessness are common signs of hypoxia in patients of all ages.
- Question 3 of 24
Which symptom would indicate partial obstruction of the upper airway?CorrectIncorrect
Stridor occurs in the upper airway. Rales, rhonchi and wheezes all occur in the lower airway.
- Question 4 of 24
The patient you are caring for is a child. He is having spontaneous respirations. What does this mean?CorrectIncorrect
When your patient is taking unassisted breaths, this is also known as spontaneous breaths. Spontaneous breaths may occur at any rate or tidal volume and with or without difficulty.
- Question 5 of 24
What is the most common cause of airway obstruction?CorrectIncorrect
The tongue is the most common cause of an airway obstruction.
- Question 6 of 24
You have a six-year-old patient in your care that is in respiratory distress. The pulse oximeter (Sa02) reads 93%. How must you manage your patient?CorrectIncorrect
Oxygen is given to patients who present signs or symptoms of hypoxia, including a pulse oximeter below 94%. EMTs should not withhold oxygen from any patient who has a pulse oximeter under 94%. It is not up to the EMTs to contact the patient’s physician for medical instructions and they shouldn’t administer MDIs which have not been prescribed to the patient.
- Question 7 of 24
CPAP, also known as continuous positive airway pressure, can reduce a patient’s respiratory distress by:CorrectIncorrect
CPAP aids in keeping the alveoli open. It is also a treatment for sleep apnea and can also help to avoid intubation. CPAP does not relieve FBAO.
- Question 8 of 24
You have a patient with a stoma bag. You are required to ventilate him. You note that air is escaping from his mouth and nose with each breath. What should you do?CorrectIncorrect
When a patient has a stoma, you should be sure to seal their mouth and nose when ventilating them. This will prevent air leakage. Using the jaw thrust or head tilt and chin lift will not prevent air leakage. If you reduce the tidal volume, it could potentially lead to inadequate ventilations.
- Question 9 of 24
Which is the primary intervention that should be performed when you are faced with an unresponsive patient with a suspected spinal cord injury?CorrectIncorrect
When you are faced with a patient who has a suspected spinal injury, the head-tilt, chin-lift is contraindicated. The jaw thrust maneuver is an example of an airway technique that should be performed before inserting a mechanical airway adjunct.
- Question 10 of 24
When there isn’t enough oxygen being delivered to the body’s tissues, this is called:CorrectIncorrect
Hypoxia is when there is insufficient oxygen delivery to the body’s tissues. Hypercarbia is when there are abnormally high carbon dioxide levels in the system. Shock and hypoperfusion both relate to inadequate tissue perfusion.
- Question 11 of 24
Your patient has shallow respirations and bradypnea. What will this likely cause?CorrectIncorrect
When a patient has shallow respirations and bradypnea, these can both contribute to a decrease in minute volume. Neither of these will make the chest rise more visible, nor will they increase the pulse oximeter reading or reduce the carbon dioxide levels.
- Question 12 of 24
You have an unconscious 16-year-old male patient (due to an assault) in front of you. You insert an OPA and he begins to gag. What should you do?CorrectIncorrect
If your patient begins to gag while you are inserting an OPA, it must immediately be removed and the airway should be suctioned as deemed necessary. If you continue to insert the OPA despite the gagging, it could lead to vomiting. An incorrectly sized OPA should not be used on a patient. Advanced airways can also stimulate your patient’s gag reflex.
- Question 13 of 24
Why is carbon monoxide exposure dangerous?CorrectIncorrect
Carbon monoxide binds with hemoglobin, more easily than with oxygen. This process prevents sufficient delivery of oxygen to the body.
- Question 14 of 24
You witness the person next to you at the gym collapse. The patient becomes apneic, with a pulse. What percentage of oxygen would your patient receive once you start performing mouth to mask ventilations?CorrectIncorrect
When you exhale, that air contains about 16% oxygen. Therefore, a patient who is receiving mouth to mask ventilations would receive about 16% oxygen. Atmospheric air contains about 21% oxygen.
- Question 15 of 24
When you have an unresponsive patient with an unknown mechanism of injury, how should you open their airway?CorrectIncorrect
When a patient has a potential spinal injury, it is advised to use the jaw-thrust. The remaining methods don’t facilitate simultaneous opening of the airway with cervical spine precautions.
- Question 16 of 24
Which of the options below is correct during inhalation, when your patient is breathing spontaneously?CorrectIncorrect
If you have a patient who is breathing spontaneously, during inhalation, their diaphragm and intercostal muscles contract. There would be a decrease in pressure in their thorax and air is pulled in rather than pushed.
- Question 17 of 24
Your patient was ejected from their car during a single vehicle rollover. He responds incoherently to verbal commands. What must you do first?CorrectIncorrect
Responsive patients should always be assessed, using the ABC method during the primary assessment. The patient’s airway should be assessed before performing any secondary exam or before placing your patient on a spine board. Circulation shouldn’t be assessed first (which would be by using the CAB sequence) because responsive patients aren’t in need of CPR.
- Question 18 of 24
Which of the following types of patients would have an oropharyngeal airway?CorrectIncorrect
OPAs are for patients who are unresponsive and who would not have a gag reflex.
- Question 19 of 24
Out of the following choices, which depicts a patient who is breathing adequately?CorrectIncorrect
A regular respiratory rate and equal chest rise are signs of sufficient breathing patterns. Shallow respirations, cyanosis and unusually fast or slow breathing, are all signs of inadequate breathing.
- Question 20 of 24
You are treating a patient who is a construction worker and he fell from a residential rooftop. His breaths are shallow and irregular. What should you do?CorrectIncorrect
When a patient has this type of extreme injury, a reduced LOC and shallow, inconsistent breathing patterns, BVM ventilations should be administered. Do not withhold ventilations in order to get a pulse oximeter reading. The NRB and nasal cannula are inappropriate for patients with insufficient ventilations.
- Question 21 of 24
You should administer a nonrebreather mask to:CorrectIncorrect
Nonrebreather masks are indicated for patients who are breathing spontaneously with adequate ventilations and who show signs of hypoxia. Patients who have inadequate, slow or shallow ventilations should be ventilated.
- Question 22 of 24
You have a 36-year-old female patient who is suddenly having difficulty breathing. She is feeling anxious, has intercostal retractions and nasal flaring. Her respiratory rate is 24 breaths per minute. You don’t have a pulse oximeter with you. What should you do?CorrectIncorrect
If you have a patient who is showing signs of hypoxia, you should administer supplemental oxygen. The NRB mask is the best technique to administer oxygen to patients who are in respiratory distress who are breathing adequately and who have no pulse oximeter reading.
- Question 23 of 24
If your patient is showing signs and symptoms that they are hypoxic, what should you do?CorrectIncorrect
When you are faced with a patient who shows signs of hypoxia, you should place them on supplemental oxygen. This should never be delayed in order to get a pulse oximeter reading when the patient is showing signs of hypoxia.
- Question 24 of 24
You have been dispatched to the local incarceration facility. You now have a patient who was found unresponsive in her jail cell. Her airway is clear, but her respirations are rapid and slow. The pulse oximeter (SaO2) reads 90%. What should your primary action be?CorrectIncorrect
This patient is breathing inadequately, and has a low pulse oximeter and a decreased LOC; therefore she requires artificial ventilations. These ventilations should be administered before assessing her blood glucose levels, her blood pressure or before initiating her transport